268 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. credit in an expedition to Arabia, and owing to his "affability, bounty, loyalty, courage and experience in arms, at home and abroad,"l was hailed as a promising successor to the throne. The Shah showed his displeasure by putting to death the Prince's tutor. Khudabanda hastened to court and expostulated wildly, going so far as to draw his sword. Thereupon his father had him blinded. The Prince became half insane, and in order to avenge himself killed Fatima, a daughter on whom the Shah doted, and then himself took poison. The eyes of the fourth son also were put out, and by this act Shah Abbas cut off the last of his sons from the throne. His Death and Character.—These acts of cruelty marked the closing days of Abbas, who, at the age of seventy, died of a painful disease at his favourite palace in Mazanderan, after a long and glorious reign of forty-two years. In reviewing the character of a monarch it is proper to give due weight to the judgment of his own people, and it may at once be said that no sovereign who ever ruled in Persia is so much respected or beloved as Shah Abbas the Great. His portrait shows a very handsome man, with fine, clean-cut features, keen eyes, and large moustaches. Throughout his life he was noted for courage, activity, and endurance of fatigue. His ideas were far in advance of those current in his time, and his general outlook was eminently wide and sane, although his readiness to kill on the slightest pretext was deplor- able. I prefer to think that the awful domestic tragedies which darkened the close of his reign were not purely wanton, but had at least some partial justification ; for a prince so great, and in the main so just, was not the man to put his sons to death without what he believed to be good reasons. This account of the greatest of Persia's sovereigns since the Moslem conquest may be fittingly concluded with Chardin's dictum, "When this great Prince ceased to live, Persia ceased to prosper/' 1 Herbert, op. cit. p. 178, details these tragedies with many rhetorical flourishes.